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Andrew Jones, the man behind the beet juice fad of 2009, has more performance-enhancing revelations in a study just released online in the Journal of Applied Physiology. He found that taking the supplement L-arginine produced very similar effects to beet juice: by reducing the “oxygen cost of exercise,” it allowed subjects to last 20% longer in a ~10-minute cycle to exhaustion (11:47 versus 9:22 for controls) in a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. They estimate that’s equivalent to a boost of 1-2% in a fixed-distance race. (Abstract here, press release here.)
What’s significant here is that L-arginine acts in basically the same way as beet juice. Beet juice contains nitrate, which the body converts to nitric oxide, which has a number of effects such as dilating blood vessels and lowering blood pressure, ultimately allowing the body to perform more work from the same amount of oxygen. L-arginine is also converted by an enzyme to nitric oxide, producing the same cascade of effects — and, as the researchers note, the performance boosts observed in the two studies are very similar, giving them confidence that they really do understand what’s happening inside the body.
This is by no means the first L-arginine study — there have been a number of attempts to use it for performance enhancement, with conflicting results. Previous studies have generally given the supplement on a chronic basis — a little bit each day, or even several times a day. In this case, the researchers opted for one big dose, taken an hour before exercise, to make sure that nitric oxide availability really was elevated during the exercise bout. (They used 500mL of a drink called Ark 1, containing 6 g of L-arginine. There are no disclosures in the paper about who paid for the study.) This change may explain why they saw such a clear result compared to earlier studies.
So what’s next? According to the press release, “the researchers are hoping to find out whether combining the two methods could bring an even greater improvement in athletic performance.” In the meantime, perhaps L-arginine will prove to be a more user-friendly option than beet juice. Here’s what Amby Burfoot reported about one world-record-holder’s abortive try:
Two days before the ING New York City Marathon, I asked Paula Radcliffe if she actually drank beet juice. This moved her to stage one: silly giggles. And an embarrassing response. “I tried it once,” she said, “but most of it came out the other end.